Kanthar Anubhuthi - Verse 42
By Sri Arunagirinathar
The "Kuri" or Lakshya or the Supreme Object of attainment is the Lord. It is Brahman or the Absolute. It is Satchidananda Existence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute. It is the Self or the Vel, as seen in verse 40. The Goal is attained when the Lord, out of His grace, chooses to bless us and reveals Himself as the Incomparable Vel, as the Self, as super consciousness. This is Samadhi the culmination of Dhyana (meditation) wherein the knower, the known, and the process of knowing become one, and Self-consciousness supervenes. This is Vel-consciousness or "the state of knowing the Object by 'thinking-without-thinking'."
The 2 kinds of knowledge
Sensory-knowledge and Self-knowledge
There are two kinds of knowledge; knowledge-by-process and knowledge-by-being; sensory knowledge and pure self-consciousness (intuition); mediate knowledge and immediate or non-mediate knowledge.
Knowledge obtained through perception, sensation, etc., i.e., obtained through the operation of the senses, mind, and intellect, is sensory knowledge. This knowledge comes by a process of knowing, in which the intellect, mind, and senses act as instruments or media to the knowing principle which is the Self or Consciousness. When the Consciousness, which is universal gets associated, as it were, with these instruments, it gets involved in them and is limited to them. Then it begins to see things other than itself and knows them in a process. When the consciousness, thus, limited, objectifies itself through the individual mind, thinking takes place. When it further moves out and activates the senses and the organs (body), which are the means of contact, it establishes a relation with the world, through speech and action. Thus, the consciousness moves out and has knowledge of the world outside through the mind and senses, and establishes a contact with it through the body. This is the kind of knowledge that is known to us. The highest type of knowledge in this kind is intellectual knowledge, which is finally based on the report of the senses of the outside world. This is objectified knowledge; knowing by thinking; mediate knowledge.
But, there is another kind of knowledge, a novel kind altogether. It is known as Self-consciousness or Intuition, which supervenes in the state of Samadhi or Realization. This is non-objectified awareness. This is the Vel-consciousness or "knowing the object by `thinking-without-thinking'", says Arunagirinathar.
These expressions carry mystic meanings, far beyond our intellectual grasp. Thinking without thinking, sleepless sleep, Vel-consciousness, etc., are very mystic. They all connote the state of Samadhi or Mukthi, for which Arunagirinathar uses the term "Neri". Though it is impossible to explain what this state of Self-consciousness is, because it is an experience (i.e., to be had for Oneself) it can be made clear by proceeding on the lines of a simple analogy of our day-to-day experience.
As we know, there is a difference between our knowing the existence of an object and our own existence (as a bodily entity). How do we know that an object exists? By the process of perception and thinking, because the object known and the knowing subject (we) are not the same, i.e., they are two different entities standing apart. In other words, the existence of the object is separated for our consciousness of it.
But, how do we know that we exist? Now by perception, not by thinking; we need not see ourselves to know that we exist, nor do we need to think or ratiocinate. We know ourselves by a kind of intuition or self-consciousness! What is this? The consciousness or the knowing principle in us gets so much identified with the body that it regards itself as the body and feels "I m", in the sense "I am the body". Here, for all practical purposes "I" means the body.
In the perception of objects, the consciousness objectifies itself further, i.e., goes outside the body, and knows them. In our knowing of ourselves, the consciousness which has, thus, identified itself does nothing but to return to itself (i.e., the body) and be itself, and know itself as such, as "I am", without involving perception or thinking. The consciousness coming back to itself, being itself, and knowing itself this is intuition or self-consciousness this is knowing by "thinking without thinking". This is knowing by being, wherein both knowing and being are one, i.e., being itself is knowing.
This, of course, is the crudest form of intuition or self-consciousness because, here, there are still two things the inert body and the knowing consciousness which are superimposed on each other. The Jiva-consciousness to regard itself as the body is the lowest degree of self-consciousness and there are higher degrees of self-consciousness the consciousness identified with the mind, with the intellect, and with the ego or Avidya when it feels, respectively, "I am happy, I am dejected"; "I know, I am baffled"; and "I exist or I am" with the feeling that it (the Jiva-consciousness) has an independent existence of its own isolated form the cosmic existence of Isvara. This Jivatva or pure Jiva-consciousness is the highest degree of self-consciousness of the Jiva, wherein the universal consciousness gets reflected in the Avidya or individuality, and forgets its universal nature asserts its limited existence as "I am." Thus, the feeling "I am body, I am mind, etc.," are the different degrees of self-consciousness of the Jiva-consciousness. But, in Self-consciousness (Intuition) proper, there is a return of this identified or Jiva-consciousness to its Source the universal condition of Isvaratva and Consciousness, bereft of any associations, knows Itself by being Itself. It is difficult to say what knows what, which is the knower and which the is the known, because the universal is both the subject and the object, the knower and the known. It is the universal knowing itself. Something is, and That knows itself as "I am" Ahamasmi. It is Self-consciousness of Universal Being It is Being-consciousness.
The return of the objectified Jiva-consciousness to itself is, in a limited sense, self-consciousness. And the return of the pure Jiva-consciousness to Isvara or God is real Self-consciousness in both the cases, there is no extroverted knowing, but Knowing by Being.
Jiva is Siva
The Jiva is a mysterious thing. It is Isvara itself falsely identifying itself with the different Upadhis (limiting factors). The peculiarity of the Jiva-consciousness is that it feels itself to be that with which it is, for the time being, identified. Hence, when the Jiva discovers itself to be different form the sheaths, with which it identified itself, it realizes itself to be Isvara; because it is Isvara that goes by the name of Jiva when limited to Upadhis. The Skanda-Upanishad says: "Jiva is Siva; Siva is Jiva. Jiva is verily Siva alone! So long as the husk encases it, the grain is known as paddy; with the disappearance of the husk, it is called rice. Similarly, when in bondage, it is Jiva; and when Karma is destroyed it is Sadasiva. Bound by Paasam, it is Jiva; freed from Paasam, is Sadasiva."
Thus, when the meditative principle (Jiva-consciousness), which is ultimately universal awareness, frees itself from its Upadhis, through any process of meditation, Self-consciousness ensues as "I am" Ahamasmi. In Self-consciousness, being is knowing; Sat is Chit, which was referred to as "Knowledge called Serenity" (Poraiyaam Arivu), in verse 37, which the Sadhaka was instructed to attain by meditation on "Aham Brahma Asmi" [(Naan) Iraiyon Parivaaram], and with which to destroy the ego to its root (i.e., Avidya), which is now categorically declared to be destroyed in this verse (Ariyaamai Attradhu).
How this state of Samadhi supervenes is indeed a wonder. By a mysterious combination of Purva Punya (accumulated past merits), one's Sadhana-Sakthi (power of spiritual practice), Guru's power of initiation (Sakthipata) and Isvara Kripa (God's grace) the Vel or Super-consciousness reveals itself. This is the state of Turiya, i.e., consciousness in Its transcendental state bereft of its relation with the five Kosas (sheaths), which is so precisely conveyed in the verse "No sooner Mukthi, the Vel Incomparable, is granted than the relations with the world ceased, speech ceased, mind ceased, intellect ceased, and ignorance, too, ceased."
We need not go into much details to explain this. It is evident that when Self-consciousness supervenes, "other-consciousness" ceases and with it all processes cease. We have, however, to note that Arunagirinathar employs specific words to denote the cessation of the five sheaths (Kosas).
Kosas the 5 sheaths that encase the Jiva and
prevent it from reaching Siva
Relations with the world are established by the body (the organs of action) which is the Annamaya Kosa. Speech, which is due to the operation of the Prana, represents Pranamaya Kosa. Mind is Manomaya Kosa. Intellect is Vijnanamaya Kosa. Ignorance is Avidya and represents the Anandamaya Kosa. Thus, all the five Kosas cease functioning when the Jiva attains Liberation. This is also the state of Supreme Mowna (Silence).
In verse 40, Arunagirinathar said that an effort at the perpetual establishment in the awareness of the Self, i.e., non-forgetfulness of the Vel, removes delusion, and that with that awareness one carries on all the activities as a mere play, undeluded. But, yet, there is the activity of the senses, mind, intellect, and ego in that state, though it be undeluded; because it is Jiva that is trying to establish itself in God, i.e., we thinking of the Vel. But when, as in this verse, the Vel, is revealed, i.e., when the Jiva is established in God, there is a total cessation of all human faculties, including the ego and Avidya. The real and full glory of the Vel is thus, explicitly revealed in this verse, as the very state of Mukthi. Vel-consciousness is self-consciousness; the Vel is the Self.
This is one of the most intriguing but profound verses in this treatise. Let us, therefore, see some interesting points in it.
"Thinking" (further explained)
There is thinking (Kuritthal).
There is thinking and knowing, i.e., knowing-by-thinking (Kuritthu Aridhal). This is sensory, or mediate or objectified knowledge.
There is "thinking-without-thinking" or thinkingless thinking (Kuriyaadhu Kuritthal), which is meditation (Dhyana).
There is "thinking-without-thinking and knowing the object" (Kuriyaadhu Kuritthu Aridhal), which is Samadhi (Self-consciousness).
What sensory knowledge is, we have seen earlier. In meditation, a total reversal of the whole process of sensory knowing takes place. The consciousness, which has objectified itself through the intellect, mind, senses, and body, traces its steps back, which process is meditation. Instead of thinking outwardly, it starts thinking inwardly. Instead of thinking in terms of objects, which are limited and outside, it starts thinking of God, the Self, which is universal and so "within". Thus, sensory knowledge is an outward process, externalization of consciousness; meditation is an inward process, universalization of consciousness. Yet, it is a process, and even in meditation the consciousness is still objectified, because though it is tracing its steps back, it is still away from its source (or center). Even Jiva-consciousness is objectified, not to speak of object-consciousness.
Thus, Dhyana (meditation) is also a process, though inward; there is an effort to know the Object of meditation which is not yet known. But Samadhi (self-consciousness) is a state; the Object is known, and there is, therefore, a cession of all effort (or process). Hence, the Experience of the state of Samadhi (Realization) is the same, irrespective of the difference in the methods (processes) of meditation resorted to, which is the case even in ordinary experiences. The experience of deep sleep is the same with all, thought he methods of going to sleep may differ.
Different interpretations of "thinking-without-thinking"
"Thinking-without-thinking" may, therefore, be interpreted differently, though what is attained or the Experience would be the same, ultimately.
1. Thinking of God, without thinking of anything else:
This is the method of Bakthi exclusive devotion to God (i.e., God-thought to the exclusion of everything else). This is what the Bhagavad-Gita refers to as "Ananya Chintan". Thought of God, without a second to it, is therefore "thinking-without-thinking." But when this process is carried on, God-thought becomes so deep that the thinking principle loses itself in God, so that it ceases to exist and God (pure consciousness) alone remains; just as when the river rushes into the ocean, the ocean alone is, without any trace of the river.
Transcending Nama-Rupa to behold the Essence (Satchidananda)
2. Thinking of the Universal Reality behind the object of meditation, without thinking of its name and form:
When a child sees a dog carved out of stone, it only sees a dog and no stone; it has not got that matured understanding to perceive the stone behind it. It sees only the form and not the essence (or substance). But if we see it, we know it as a stone, though we also see the dog-form. We, too, see the dog, but we go beyond the name and form and behold the substance and know it as a piece of stone. It is not that we do not see the form; but we transcend it. Now to see the form but try to perceive the essence is, therefore, "thinking-without-thinking."
To transcend Nama-Rupa and behold Satchidananda is "thinking (of the essence) without thinking (of the name and form)." Thus, in meditation on any form of God, we have to see the Universal Reality behind the deity. When, in this process, the Nama-Rupa of the object of meditation is transcended, with it the Nama-Rupa (individuality) of the meditator is also transcended, and the Reality behind both, which is Satchidananda, alone remains and the state of Samadhi (super-consciousness) supervenes.
3. Thinking of God as God thinks, without thinking of Him as man thinks:
This is to think of the Universal from its own standpoint and not form the standpoint of the particular, and know it. The particular, as the particular, can never know the Universal; it has to become (or be) the Universal and know it. The Jiva cannot know Isvara (God) so long as it is a Jiva. It has to know Isvara by being Isvara.
Here we will have an interesting divergence. In sensory perception and knowing, though we know an object, we have no real knowledge of it. What we know is only the existence of the object. We have no real knowledge of it because we have no power (or control) over it. That we see an object and know its existence as, for example, a mountain, does not mean we have a control over it, i.e., we have no real knowledge of it, because, it is said, "knowledge is power." If sensory knowledge is not power, what is that knowledge which is power?
It is self-consciousness, where knowing is being. In knowing an object, we do not become (or be) that object; hence, we have no control over it. But in knowing ourselves, as explained earlier, we are ourselves; hence, we have control over ourselves, though not in an absolute sense more than what we have on the objects known by us. But in Self-consciousness (or Isvara consciousness), God knows everything and also has control over everything, because He is everything He being Immanent. His power consists in His being everything; His Omnipotence is in His Omnipresence.
Summary (of the preceding points)
The point at issue is that one thing cannot know another unless it becomes that thing itself, and then only it really knows; otherwise it is not real knowledge, as in sense-perception and sensory knowledge. Therefore, knowing implies being.
Can we become God?
Here the pertinent question, "Can one thing really become another?" may be raised. Indeed one thing cannot really be (or become) another; but a thing which has imagined itself to be something other than what it really is, can be freed from its false imagination (for which purpose is meditation prescribed and practiced) and be what it is always is (which is realization).
How the Jiva becomes Isvara
Now, how does the Jiva become (or be) Isvara (God) and know Him? There is an element of God in man. When man sheds his human elements (or faculties), the God-element, left to itself, realizes Itself as such. So, it is God realizing God, not man realizing God. How can one thing realize another thing? How can man realize God? Hence, it is significantly said as God-realization, Self-realization, or Sakshatkara (one thing realizing Itself), and not as man-realization. It is God-experience, not man-experience.
I am that
4. Thinking of God as the Subject, without thinking of Him as an object:
God is Chit (pure consciousness). There is no other conscious principle than God. Hence, He is the Knower (or Subject) and He can, therefore, never become the Known (or an object of knowledge). Hence, that which meditates in the Jiva (or the meditative-consciousness) is itself God. It is, therefore, thought thinking itself and knowing itself; it is the Subject knowing Itself.
5. Thinking of God (the Object of meditation) in the Pathi-Jnana method, without thinking of Him in the Pasu-Jnana and Paasam-Jnana methods:
This is according to the Saiva Siddhanta philosophy method. Pathi is God; Pasu is the soul (Jiva); and Paasam is the soul's bondage. The soul's knowledge of the objects of the world, which are the Paasas (or factors of bondage) and which are other than itself, through the mind and senses the soul's deluded knowledge of things other than itself as itself is Paasam-Jnana. When the souls' understanding ripens, it slowly comes to realize that the objects known, as also the mind and sense through which they are known, are all Jada (insentient) and that it (the soul) is an intelligent principle other than these. At this level, when it knows itself to be the knower of the Paasas, it would under delusion, think itself to be the Pathi. That knowledge by which the Pasu regards itself as Pathi is Pasu-Jnana. The Pasu that understands itself to be an intelligent principle, further realizes that it itself is not the knowing intelligence, but that there is another Intelligence duly illumined by which it knows. When it dives within to know the source of its knowledge, it gets a knowledge of the Pathi (God) that stands as the immanent Intelligence of its intelligence. This is Pathi-Jnana.
If the Pasu holds on to this Pathi-Jnana, thus, understood in a measure and abstains form the Paasam-Jnana, the Pathi (God) will be revealed to that Pathi-Jnana.
The peculiarity of the soul (Pasu) is that it partakes either of the nature of the Paasam or Pathi according to whichever it is united. Hence, in meditation on God in the Pathi-Jnana mode, it becomes one with God, knows God as God knows, and enjoys all the attributes of God.
6. Thinking "I am Brahman", without thinking "I am body, mind, etc.":
This is the Vedantic method of Neti, Neti (not this, not this) doctrine and Abheda Brahma Chintan with Aham Brahmasmi Bhavana. We have seen in the beginning how the consciousness, which is universal in its nature, gets limited to individuality (Avidya) and objectifies itself through the intellect and mind, and finally establishes a relation with the world through the sense and the body. The consciousness, in a state of delusion, regards itself as the body, senses, etc. When the Guru gives Mahavakya Upadesa and instructs the disciple to meditate on "Aham Brahma Asmi," the consciousness gets awakened to its real nature. Now, the process of meditation starts. The consciousness, which in identification with the body, thought "I am the body, I am Mr. so and so, I am tall, etc." knowing itself to be different from the body, because the body is inert while it is the knowing intelligence to which the former is an object, feels "(I am) not this (body)."
Together with this, it affirms its real nature, as initiated by the Guru, as Aham Brahma Asmi (I am Brahman). In the same way, the consciousness withdraws itself form the sense, mind, intellect, ego, and Avidya, saying, "(I am) not this; (I am) not this." Thus, when the Consciousness finally rests in itself, stands by itself (bereft of all associations) it is itself and knows itself and experiences "I am consciousness" "I am Brahman."
It is not that "I" is one thing and "Brahman" is another thing and that one thing says (or feels), "I am another". It is not the Jiva's egoistic assertion, "I am Brahman." As we have seen earlier, Isvara, who is finally Brahman Itself, goes by the name of Jiva when limited to the Upadhis. Isvara limited to the Upadhi of Avidya is Jiva; Jiva freed form the Upadhis is Isvara. It is not this limited Jiva-consciousness, in the state of Avidya, that feels, "I am Brahman", but Isvara Himself that feels so. It is one thing feeling and experiences that it is itself only. It is what is that knows what it is. It is Self-consciousness of God as "I am" (or "Ahamasmi").
It is something like this: when we as Mr. Krishna, "Who are you?" he would say, "I am Krishna." But to himself, he does not say, "I am Krishna", but only feels, "I am" or "I exist". Similarly, when the Guru gives initiation saying, "Tat Tvam Asi" (Thou art That), the student says, "Aham Brahma Asmi" (I am Brahman) and also affirms so in meditation while negating the body, etc., by the Neti-Neti, doctrine. Finally, as a result of intense and prolonged meditation and the dawn of Divine Grace, Self-consciousness supervenes in Samadhi and the Jiva-consciousness attains freedom (liberation) Mukthi. The liberated consciousness rests in itself and knows itself as "Ahamasmi".
The process of meditation
It will be seen from the above that meditation is an effort to withdraw the externalized consciousness, internalize it, and finally universalize it, and that meditation culminates in the state of knowing by being, which is an Experience Samadhi.
Mukthi is not an after death attainment
Mukthi (God-realization) is not necessarily an after-death attainment but an experience (or state of consciousness), which can be had here and now, while yet living in this body. This is called Jivanmukthi and it has been attained by many saints like Appar, Sundarar, Jnana-Sambanthar, Arunagirinathar, Swami Sivananda, and others. Mukthi can be attained here itself because God is not somewhere in the seventh heaven (or in some particular place)so that the soul has to go there, after death, to attain Him. He is the universal Reality, Omnipresent, and Omniscient. He is everywhere and so He must be attainable here itself. If god cannot be experienced here, He cannot be experienced there, also. And if God is elsewhere, He must also be here; otherwise, He ceases to be the God eternal and becomes an object, like any other object, however big, superior, and glorified He might be, and will be subject to the limitations of an object. Hence, Mukthi is and can be attained here itself and this is the state conferred in this verse, which is denoted by the terms "Neri" and "Incomparable Vel" by Saint Arunagirinathar.
Neri = Mukthi = Vel/Lord's Feet
The popular and well-known meaning of the term "Neri" is way, path, method, or technique. And so, the first two lines of the verses are often interpreted as "No sooner the Lord of the Incomparable Vel (Skanda) gave Upadesa on the method of knowing the Object (of meditation) by thinking-without-thinking....Avidya ceased." But one of the meanings of the term Neri" is "Mukthi" and it is in this sense that Arunagirinathar uses the term here, which meaning is better suited than "method". Because, if it is mere Upadesa of a method (or technique), how can it bring about the destruction of Avidya at once? The technique has to be put into practice before the desired result could be achieved. Hence, "Neri" cannot mean "method" in this context.
It is interesting to note that, in the work Kanthar Anubhuthi, Arunagirinathar employs the term "Neri" only in two verses Verses 21 and 42; the former verse is a prayer to grant His Lotus Feet to attain Mukthi and the latter is granting of Mukthi.
In verse 21 also, "Neri" refers to Mukthi and not a way (or method) because by the granting of the Lord's Feet, one attains Mukthi and not merely a way to achieve something. The Lord's Feet (which represent Paramapada or Omnipresence) are themselves the Object of attainment and not a means to something else. This is evident from the prayer of the Saint in verse 35 wherein he says, "When shalt Thou grant me Thine Lotus Feet that I may attain Liberation (Mukthi)," as also of the prayer of verse 41. So, the granting of the Feet is itself Mukthi which again is confirmed in verse 44.
Thus, "Neri" is "Mukthi", i.e., a state and not a method; an end and not a means.
As though to clarify and confirm that this "Neri" of knowing the Object (of attainment) by thinking-without-thinking is a state granted (Mukthi) and not a technique instructed, Arunagirinathar says that the "Neri" is "the Vel Incomparable." It is not that two things were granted "Neri" and the Vel but the "Neri" is the Vel. He identifies them by saying "Neriyai" "Velai". And as we know, the Incomparable Vel is not a means to Knowledge but is Knowledge Itself; it is the Jnana-Vel. It is Absolute Consciousness as we have seen in verse 40.
The master-stroke comes when Arunagirinathar completes the verse saying, "No sooner is this granted than the relations with the world ceased, speech ceased, mind ceased, intellect ceased, and ignorance (Avidya) also ceased." All this is achieved, especially the destruction of Avidya, only when the Jiva is absorbed in God, i.e., in Self-consciousness. The Universal, due to Avidya, regards itself as the particular and in the process of meditation, when the Jiva is granted the Vel (or the state of Knowing the Object the Universal) by thinking-without-thinking, it returns to Itself, and Avidya is destroyed. Avidya cannot cease to exist by mere instruction on a technique of meditation.
In fact, this verse itself is the attainment of the Goal (or God-experience), though the Experience is given a grander, more magnificent and positive expression in the next verse. Here, it is expressed in mystic terms; in the next verse, it is explicitly said, employing the term Anubhuthi. Hence, that is regarded as the climax of the treatise.
This is a rare verse, which conveys a grand, mystic experience difficult to understand, more difficult to explain and indeed most fortunate to have, all which become easy by the Grace of the Lord with the Incomparable Vel.
Instruction for the devout Sadhaka
[As a result of the determined effort at establishment in the Vel-consciousness ("Aham Brahma Asmi") meditation (verse 40), which was duly intensified by a longing to attain the state of Jivanmukthi (liberation) here and now (verse 41), the Sadhaka is now granted the state of Mukthi (Vel-consciousness), by which the individuality-consciousness (Avidya) is annihilated. Here is an open and emphatic declaration that Avidya ceases (Ariyaamai Attradhu) the ignorance which still remained undestroyed (verse 29) even after the glimpse of cosmic-consciousness in meditation (verse 28). This is the state of Samadhi the state of Being-Consciousness (or "Knowledge called Serenity" Poraiyaam Aviru) attained by meditation on "Aham Brahma Asmi", which destroys Avidya the fulfillment and realization of the instructions of the Guru (verse 27). This grand experience is portrayed more vividly and in positive terms in the next verse as "Pesaa Anubhuthi" (speechless-experience).
We may regard each of the verses 42, 43, and 44 as the attainment of the Goal, though it is differently given expression to. In fact, this verse is the actual attainment, and verses 43 and 44 seem to be recapitulations mixed with a gratitude-expressing attitude.
As seen in the last verse, the Vel and the Lord's Feet mean one and the same thing, and they go together. This is confirmed by this verse. How? That "non-thinking and the non-forgetting state (of Mukthi), which is attainable by the grant of the Lord's Feet (verse 21)", is "the state (of Mukthi) of knowing the Object by thinking-without-thinking" that is granted now (verse 42). The "Karudhaa Maravaa Neri" is the "Kuriyaik Kuriyaadhu Kuritthu Ariyum Neri", i.e., the "Neri" (Mukthi" attainable by the grant of the Feet is had when the Vel is revealed. From this it is quite evident that the Feet and the Vel mean one and the same. Their non-difference can also be seen from verses 40 and 41 while the effort in verse 40 as to fix oneself in an uninterrupted meditation on the Vel, the intensification of that effort is expressed as a longing for an immediate attainment of (protection under) the Feet in verse 41. The revelation of the Vel, in this verse, naturally implies the simultaneous granting of the Lord's Feet as well, which fact is, of course, explicitly and categorically declared by the Saint in verse 44, which is an exclamation over, a gratitude for, as also an effect of, what has been granted now.]
Karthikeyan, N.V. Kanthar Anubhuti (God-Experience) of Saint Arunagirinathar. 2nd ed. India: Divine Life Society, 1990.